Democracy Index KID 2012

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Komunitas Indonesia untuk Demokrasi (KID - engl. Indonesian Community for Democracy) carried out the measuring of Democracy Index in 2012. This measurement aims to gain insights whether there is progress in the implementation and the system of democracy or, on the contrary, regress. The insights gained will be invaluable in designing the future strategic program implementation for Komunitas Indonesia untuk Demokrasi (KID). Specifically, this measurement looked at the development of democracy at the district level in four regencies i.e. Batu (East Java), Lhokseumawe (Nangroe Aceh Darusalam/NAD), South Tangerang (Banten) and Jayapura (Papua) in 2012. The results were then compared with the similar measurement of Democracy Index in the same places done in 2011.

Definition of the Quality of Democracy and Democracy Index
The quality of democracy is defined as the level of functionality of the democratic institutions within a democratic system in a given society (life of democracy). This functionality facilitates citizens in achieving what they want or what they believe as the best for them. Democracy Index is the number representing the quality of democracy.

Conceptual Framework and Method of Measurement

The analysis on the quality of democracy was carried out in three stages. Firstly, the analysis on the system; based on the assumption that all actions are carried out within a particular system and all the relevant information regarding those actions pertains to the system. Secondly, the analysis on the individuals; based on the assumption that the political participation of the individuals is the key to the democratic way of life. Thirdly, the combination of the previous two analysis by using the analysis of the main components; based on the assumption that democracy will always be an interaction between individuals and the political system.

In the first and second stages, the dimensions of democracy to be highlighted in the design of the democracy index instruments are: (1) the quality of the local government; (2) the political participation of the citizens; and (3) civil liberty.

In the third stage, the analysis was carried out on the interaction between the system of democracy and the implementation of that system. The indicators used to measure the interaction between the system and its implementation by individuals are grouped into: (1) the performance of the system in achieving the goals of democracy, (2) how the mechanism and rules of political participation facilitate the citizens’ participation, and (3) the tools and infrastructure available to support civil liberties. In this measurement, the stages of measuring the quality of democracy were carried out in the same sequence as in 2011:

  1. The first stage: measuring the system of democracy using the check-list about the democratic institutions. It analyzes the institutions and how the potentials of those institutions are realized in the life of the people in a particular society. The democratic institutions work as a unified system of democracy, and have the potentials of realizing a quality democracy. A system of democracy can be defined as a regime with the potentials to bring the citizens to the situation in which they can attain what they believe as being in their best interests. The result of the analysis and measurement is the democratic system index.
  2. The second stage: measuring the experience of democracy as it is perceived by people in everyday life. This measurement was done using the Likert-Like Type scale with six points scale. The actualization of the potentials of the democratic institutions can be recognized through the extent of which the system works for the people. The indicators of a working system can be determined by the changes undergone by the citizens, from the feelings, thoughts, actions, activities and interactions, to their happiness. The actualization of these potentials is what constitutes the life of democracy. The term “life of democracy” in this research refers to the actualization of the potentials of a system of democracy. The result of this measurement is the life of democracy index.
  3. The third stage: measuring the quality of democracy with the main components analysis, resulting in variables representing the interaction between the system of democracy and individual experience of democracy. The variables become the indicators for the quality of democracy, which we call the Democracy Index.

As in 2011, this research used two methods in parallel: quantitative and qualitative. The two methods were used simultaneously to provide a synergy, a technique commonly known as triangulation. In the analysis process, the two methods can be used in parallel on the same phenomenon. The result is two sets of data: quantitative and qualitative. The two sets of data would then be analyzed separately. The result would then be combined with the inductive and deductive techniques according to the model used.

Quantitative data were gathered from respondents in four districts where the Schools of Democracy operate:

  • Batu: 64 respondents,
  • Lhokseumawe: 65 respondents,
  • South Tangerang: 65 respondents,
  • Jayapura: 68 respondents.

Data gathered included those taken from respondents who are stakeholders in each area. Those stakeholders involved in this research are representatives of these categories: (1) government officials; (2) political parties; (3) NGOs; (4) business people; (5) political scientists; (6) youth organizations; and (7) religious organizations. The number of respondents representing the stakeholders in each district is as follow: 15 in Batu, 15 in South Tangerang, 13 in Lhokseumawe and 13 in Jayapura. Through an FGD, a set of qualitative data were collected on the system dynamics, life of democracy and the interaction between them.

You can read more about KID Democracy Index 2012 here
Read also KID Democracy Index 2012 in Indonesian version

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